Pengertian Report Text, dengan Unsur, Struktur, dan Contohnya

Quipperian, banyak sekali jenis-jenis teks dalam Bahasa inggris, salah satunya adalah report text. Namun, tahukah kalian banyak sekali yang merasa bingung apa perbedaan dari report text dan descriptive text. Sering kali kedua teks tersebut malah disamakan. 

Lalu, sebenarnya apa yang dimaksud dengan report text? Kita simak pembahasannya di artikel ini.

Apa Pengertian dari Report Text?

Report text merupakan teks yang menjelaskan secara detail suatu objek lewat dari hasil pengamatan, penelitian, observasi maupun studi dari berbagai macam hal atau peristiwa. Report text biasanya berisi berbagai fakta yang dapat dibuktikan secara ilmiah karena dalam mendeskripsikannya, diperlukan adanya investigasi dan berbagai macam pertimbangan secara ilmiah.

Apa Fungsi dari Report Text?

Fungsi report text adalah menggambarkan sesuatu secara umum dan detail baik itu objek maupun peristiwa. Fungsi inilah yang membuat banyak orang keliru dan menganggap report text dan descriptive text adalah jenis teks yang sama. Perbedaan fungsi dari kedua teks tersebut ialah, report text akan menggambarkan objek secara umum  sedangkan descriptive text akan menggambarkan objek secara khusus.

Apa Tujuan dari Report Text?

Teks tersebut bertujuan untuk menyampaikan informasi berbagai hal ataupun peristiwa secara apa adanya sebagai hasil pengamatan baik sistematis maupun analisis. Gambaran yang di sampaikan dapat berupa bencana alam, perubahan alam atau lingkungan, suatu benda, dan kasus social. Sehingga, dalam hal ini, report text sering kali digunakan untuk menyusun proposal atau laporan observasi sebuah hasil penelitian atau pengamatan tentang suatu hal dan peristiwa.

Apa Ciri-Ciri Report Text?

Untuk dapat membedakan report text dengan jenis teks lainnya, terutama descriptive text, report text memiliki ciri-ciri sebagai berikut :

  1. Berisi tentang fakta-fakta ilmiah.
  2. Memiliki keahlian dalam penggunaan report text.
  3. Seringkali disertai gambar dan data statistik sebagai bukti hasil pengamatan penulisnya.
  4. Kalimat yang digunakan adalah simple present tense.
  5. Menggunakan language feature general nouns.
  6. Menggunakan kata kerja yang saling berhubungan, seperti linking verbs atau relative verbs.
  7. Di dalamnya menjelaskan suatu objek yang akan terhubung kepada objek-objek lainnya.
  8. Menjelaskan secara umum 
  9. Menggunakan conditional logical conjungtion, seperti when, so, dan lain sebagainya.

Jika kalian menemukan lebih dari lima ciri tersebut, maka dapat dipastikan bahwa teks tersebut berjenis report text

Apa Unsur Kebahasaan Report Text?

Seperti yang disebutkan dalam sembilan ciri report text. Report text juga mempunyai unsur-unsur kebahasaan yang ada di dalamnya atau lebih dikenal dengan sebutan language features, yaitu:

  1. General nouns atau kata benda umum, yaitu kata yang merujuk pada sesuatu secara umum. Seperti, lion, cat, atau penyebutan hewan lain secara umum dan tidak secara detail, contohnya my cat dan lain sebagainya.
  2. Relating verbs atau linking verbs, misalnya, am, is, are, seem, look, taste, dan lain sebagainya.
  3. Timeless present tense, digunakan sebagai tanda waktu simple present tense. Misalnya often, usually, always, dan sebagainya. 
  4. Introducing group or general aspect, yaitu bahasa yang memperkenalkan objek penelitian secara umum. 
  5. Technical terms, menggunakan istilah yang berkaitan dengan topik yang dibahas dalam report text. Misalnya, saat kalian membuat report text mengenai tumbuhan, dalam report text tersebut harus terdapat istilah atau penyebutan mengenai tumbuhan. 

Apa Saja Struktur Bagian-Bagian dari Sebuah Report Text?

Selain unsur-unsur, dalam report text juga terdapat dua bagian utama struktur, yaitu general classification dan descriptions.

  1. General classification
    Struktur pertama ini berisi berbagai macam informasi umum yang didapatkan dari analisis hasil pengamatan penulis report text. 
  1. Descriptions
    Kemudian, pada struktur kedua ini biasanya berasa di paragraph kedua setelah struktur pertama. Memiliki fungsi yang sama dengan descriptive text, mendeskripsikan atau menggambarkan lebih dalam tentang detail dari hasil penelitian atau pengamatan penulis.

Contoh Report Text

Contoh Report Text Singkat


General classification
A builder is a person who constructs something by putting parts or materials together into a complete home over some time. Do you know what and how many types of home builders are?


In the building industry, there are several different types of home builders. We often hear the terms custom homebuilder, spec home builder, and tract home builder. Custom Home Builders are generally small-volume builders and build the only home on your land. They may offer design or build services, or maybe they are just general contracting services.

Spec Home Builders are grouped based on the builder who buys lots or land, builds a house, and then sells the house. The builder speculates that he will make money from the transaction by purchasing a lot and constructing a custom or semi-custom house on the land.

Tract or Production Home Builders is a developer or builder who owns a large plot (tract) of land divided into several small areas for stock floor plan houses to be built. The Tract or Production builder generally has a model of the building that will be the design of the house built on these lots.

Contoh Report Text Tentang Teknologi


General classification

A mobile phone (also known as a wireless phone or cell phone) is mini portable radio telephone.


Mobile phones are used to communicate remotely without wires. It works by communicating with the nearest base station (also called a “cell site”) that connects it to the main telephone network. When the phone moves, if it gets too far from the cell it’s connected to, it sends a message to the other cell to tell the new cell to take over the call.

These is called a “hand-off,” and the call continues to the new cell the phone is connected to. The hand-off is very well done and, with care so that the user will usually never even know that the call has diverted to another cell.

As mobile phones became popular, they started. It costs less money, and more people can afford it. Monthly plans are available for as low as US$30 or US$40 per month. Cell phones have become so cheap to own that they have largely replaced the telephone and telephone booths, except for urban areas with so many people.

Contoh Report Text Tentang Bencana Alam


General classification

Tsunami, a Japanese word for “harbor wave”, is used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal sea waves that can cause extensive damage when they hit shorelines. Tsunamis can be generate by undersea earthquakes, undersea landslides, undersea volcanic eruptions, or by the force of an asteroid crashing into the ocean. The most frequent cause of tsunamis is underwater earthquakes.


Tsunamis can have a wavelength, or width (the distance between one wave crest to the next), of 100 to 200 km (60 to 120 miles) and can travel hundreds of kilometers across deep sea, reaching speeds of about 725 to 800 km/h (about 450 up to 500 mph). A tsunami is not just one wave but a series of waves. In deep water, waves may be only half a meter (one or two feet) high. 

The people on the boats passing by would not even have noticed a tsunami. However, when they are enter the shallow coastal waters, wave heights can suddenly increase rapidly. When the waves reach the shore, they may be 15 m (50 ft) or more. Tsunamis can also be very fast or tedious tides, depending on the shape of the ocean floor.

Tsunamis have tremendous power due to the large volume of water they impact and the speed at which they travel. One cubic yard of water, for example, weighs about a ton. Although the tsunami slowed to about 48 km/h (30 mph) as it approached the shoreline, it had the equivalent of millions of tons of destructive force. The tsunami was able to wipe out coastal settlements.

Contoh Report Text Tentang hewan


General classification

Cats also called domestic cats or house cats (by their scientific name: Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) are a type of carnivorous mammal from the Felidae family. The word “cat” generally refers to “cats” that have been domesticated but may refer to “big cats” such as lions and tigers.


The cat is considered to be a “perfect carnivore” with teeth and a digestive tract. The first premolars and molars form a pair of fangs on each side of the mouth that act effectively as scissors to tear flesh. Although these traits are also present in Canidae or dogs, they are more developed in cats.

Unlike other carnivores, cats eat substances that are hardly vegetables. Bears and dogs sometimes eat berries, roots, or honey as a supplement, whereas cats only eat meat, usually freshly killed prey. In captivity, cats cannot adapt to a vegetarian diet because they cannot synthesize all the amino acids they need from plant materials; it is different from domestic dogs, who are usually fed a mixture of meat and vegetables, and can sometimes adapt to a completely vegetarian diet.

Cats have mingled with human life since at least 6000 BC, from a cat skeleton found on the island of Cyprus. The ancient Egyptians in 3500 BC used cats to drive away rats or other rodents from barns where crops were stored.

Currently, cats are one of the most popular pets in the world. Cats whose lineage is officially recorded as purebred or purebred cats are Persian, Siamese, Manx, and Sphinx. This type of cat is usually bred in official captivity. The number of purebred cats is only 1% of all cats in the world; the rest are cats with mixed ancestry such as wild cats or village cats.

Quipperian, itulah beberapa contoh dari report text yang dapat kamu gunakan untuk kamu pelajari sesuai dengan konteks. Kalau kalian mau belajar lebih banyak tentang berbagai pelajaran dan istilah lainnya dalam Bahasa inggris, ayo gabung dengan Quipper video. Supaya belajar kalian lebih mudah dan seru.

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